Introduction to IoT

Starter Guide to IoT

Currently, IoT that is known as the Internet of things is the most trending technology in the current digital world. Everything that is connected to the internet is IoT.

Why IoT is so Important?

  • IoT has its applications in every industry, it touches everything.
  • Many companies added IoT into the main flow and it created new job roles.
  • Providing transparency into customer transactions.
  • IoT helps an organization to automate their processes of working and afterwards they can save a lot of money on labor.
  • It also reduces work and improves service delivery.
  • It represents the future of computing and communications.
  • It is fourth Industrial Revolution

Theory Related to IoT

Before was introduced, the concept called the Internet of People was popular. It was the connection and communication that happens among the people.

Later on, there was a necessity for the devices, sensors, software to communicate between each other the same as the people do. Then new and innovative concepts arise called IoT, which was introduced to facilitate the communication between the devices through the internet.

Where thing referring to any device that consists of some built-in sensors which are enabled to exchange and collect data over the network or through the internet without any human interaction.

IoT means the connection of everyday objects with the Internet and connection between another device or object, with the goal being to provide users with smarter, more efficient experiences. Internet of Things is the inter-networking of physical devices as it connects physical devices.

The physical devices are embedded with electronics so that they can send data and respond to kinds of signals sent to them for communication. Software plays an important role as mere hardware is a dumb machine and software is needed for its operation.

Then come to the important part of IoT i.e. sensors and actuators. Human beings have got sense organs which help them to communicate among themselves with ease and accuracy.

In the same way, sensors act like sense organs for physical devices so that they can communicate among themselves accurately. These sensors take in some kind of input in the form of digital or analog signals and give output in the form of signals itself. There are several sensors available such as PIR sensors, ultrasonic sensors, and so on.

Actuators are devices that convert a type of energy into mechanical energy. In the case of human beings, we have got sense organs to sense our surroundings but for the movement, we have got limbs which move due to mechanical energy. So actuators are devices that convert electrical energy here to mechanical energy which allows physical devices to perform movement and locomotion.

Major components of an IoT System:

  • Things*
  • Device Module 
  • Communication Module 
  • Device Cloud 
  • Application Cloud 
  • People**

* Things can be a piece of machinery like Sensors, Actuator etc.

** People can be stand-alone consumers or controllers of the IoT System whichcan be integrated with a device.

IoT Components

An IoT system comprises three basic components.

  • The Things -sensors actuators etc.
  • The Network and protocols
  • The Platforms, Apps and services

The Things – Sensors and Devices

These sensors take in some kind of input in the form of digital or analoguesignals and give output in the form of signals itself.Internet of things devices will mainly be:Low Power, Low cost and Wireless

Examples of some Simple sensors used in IoT – temperature, pressure, humidity, ultrasonic, IR etc. 

IoT Networks and Protocols

The Internet of things requires networking infrastructure and protocols currently.

Without network or protocol we can’t design IoT product. Every IoT product used is connected with a network.

Due to the requirement for low powered end devices there will be major developments in the Wireless connectivity protocols.

Wi-Fi and Bluetooth are used for low powered IoT applications and there are many new connection technologies available in the market like LPWAN, ZigBee, LoRa.

At the application level, there are a lot of new protocols. Some are available from a long time like, HTTP and MQTT, whereas others have been developed recently especially for the IoT technology.

IoT Platforms, Apps and Services

An IoT platform combines various IoT functions in one dashboard. It collects and distribute data, sharedata between protocols, store and analyze it.

3C's plays a vital role in IoT

C – Connect Let’s talks first about the first C which means Connection. Do you ever think? How can we connect the external environment to the digital world? 

Sensors and Actuators are getting used for connecting to the external world and getting the data. Sensors like Temperature Sensor, Light Sensor, Smoke Sensor, etc. they all collect the data from the environment either in the form of Digital or Analog signals. Actuators are the output devices like LED, Motors, Display, Speaker, etc.

  • A sensor is a piece of hardware or things that can measure a physical quantity and converts it into a signal that can be read by an observer or by an instrument.

These sensors are connected to the microcontroller, here comes second C which is known as – Control

C – Control to gather the data from the Sensors or to share output to Actuators we need a Controller to do this task. Microcontrollers and Microprocessors are being used here to do all this task. All the programming logic is written in these tiny little devices called microcontroller, for exp. Arduino, NodeMcu and Raspberry Pi are some examples of the microcontrollers or controller which are being widely used in IoT.

C – Communicate After Connecting with sensor and microcontroller, we need to communicate the data to the cloud or with IoT platform such that we can control and monitor from any corner of the world. Below are the communication protocols which we use to interface to the cloud servers. There is a various protocol used in IoT like HTTP, MQTT, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, ZigBee and many more

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